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GitHub Repository: https://github.com/lilfruini/CommentGathering-MillionaireMakers/tree/master SHA-256 of Primary IDs: a8735f7dacabd6bd279ed096587f49ecaf2225508b7484bdea1739faf4d21949 SHA-256 of Authors: 3cd8728eda8452e1e38da0c6346683899dd7ba0068d6e885bb9ad91d182d6188 SHA-256 of DQed Age: de0ea9f849968dfcab4c4c38aa7820380977db43913d2a12a50a215a3825c94c SHA-256 of Multiple Posters: 779cef3ecc9e2e4085b10906ee6b7bd2a4677234235580d6f94a1af7f79df699 SHA-256 of Truncated IDs: 10473d69c0344db168a6ee9243ce683d57401a76d60d2727ad033a6387eabe4d Block Selection: The Third Bitcoin Block After 22 March 2020 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 75,102
Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassadorsubmitted by CoinEx_Institution to Coinex [link] [comments]
ABSTRACTAryacoin is a new cryptocurrency, which allows for decentralized, peer to peer transactions of electronic cash. It is like Bitcoin and Litecoin, but the trading of the coin occurs on sales platforms that have no restriction to use. Further, it was created with the goal of addressing the double spend issues of Bitcoin and does so using a timestamp server to verify transactions. It works by taking the hash of a block of items to be timestamped and widely publishing the hash. The timestamp proves that the data must have existed at the time in order to get the hash. Each timestamp then includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain.
The Aryacoin team is continuously developing new use cases for the coin, including exchanges where users can exchange the coins without any fees or restrictions, and offline options where the coins can be bought and sold for cash. The coins can also be used on the company’s other platform, mrdigicoin.io. Along with the coin, there is a digital wallet that can be created and controlled by the user entirely, with no control being retained by the Aryacoin team.
1.INTRODUCTIONThe concept of Blockchain first came to fame in October 2008, as part of a proposal for Bitcoin, with the aim to create P2P money without banks. Bitcoin introduced a novel solution to the age-old human problem of trust. The underlying blockchain technology allows us to trust the outputs of the system without trusting any actor within it. People and institutions who do not know or trust each other, reside in different countries, are subject to different jurisdictions, and who have no legally binding agreements with each other, can now interact over the Internet without the need for trusted third parties like banks, Internet platforms, or other types of clearing institutions.
When bitcoin was launched it was revolutionary allowing people to transfer money to anytime and anywhere with very low transaction fees . It was decentralized and their is no third party involved in the transaction , only the sender and receiver were involved.
This paper provide a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp server to generate computational proof of the chronological order of transactions.The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes. Bitcoin was made so that it would not be controlled or regulated but now exchanges and governments are regulating bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies at every step. Aryacoin was developed to overcome these restrictions on a free currency.
Aryacoin is a new age cryptocurrency, which withholds the original principle on which the concept of cryptocurrency was established. Combining the best in blockchain technology since the time of its creation, Aryacoin strives to deliver the highest trading and mining standards for its community.
1.1 OVERVIEW ABOUT ARYACOINAryacoin is a new age cryptocurrency, which withholds the original principle on which the concept of cryptocurrency was established. Combining the best in blockchain technology since the time of its creation, Aryacoin strives to deliver the highest trading and mining standards for its community.
Aryacoin is a blockchain based project that allows users to access their wallet on the web and mobile browsers, using their login details.
Aryacoin can be mined; it also can be exchanged by other digital currencies in several world-famous exchanges such as Hitbtc, CoinEx, P2pb2b, WhiteBit, Changelly and is also listed in reputable wallets such as Coinomi and Guarda.
Aryacoin is a coin, which can be used by anyone looking to use cryptocurrency which allows them to keep their privacy even when buying/selling the coin along with while using the coin during transactions. Proof of work and cryptographic hashes allows transactions to verified.
Stable Fee Per AYA is a unique feature of Aryacoin, so by increasing the amount or volume of the transaction, there is no change in the fee within the network, which means that the fee for sending an amount less than 1 AYA is equal to several hundred million AYA. Another unique feature of Aryacoin is the undetectability of transactions in Explorer, such as the DASH and Monero, of course, this operation is unique to Aryacoin.
Using Aryacoin digital currency, like other currencies, international transactions can be done very quickly and there are no limitations in this area as the creators claim.
Aryacoin aims to allow users to access the Aryacoin wallet via the web and mobile browsers using their login details.
Aryacoin is a peer-to-peer electronic cash system that enables users to send and receive payments directly from one party to another, and allow them to transfer funds across borders with no restriction or third party involvement. The blockchain-based system embraces the digital signature, which prevents double spending and low transfer fees, which enables users to transfer huge amounts with very low fees. The proof-of-work consensus mechanism allows each transaction to be verified and confirmed, while anonymity enables users to use the coin anywhere at any time.
According to the website of the operation, each wallet is divided into 2 or more AYA wallet addresses for each transaction, and depending on the volume of the transaction block, the origin, and destination of transactions in the network can not be traced and displayed to the public.
In fact, each wallet in Aryacoin consists of a total of several wallets. The number of these wallets increases per transaction to increase both security and privacy. Aryacoin also uses the dPoW protocol. In the dPoW protocol, a second layer is added to the network to verify transactions, which makes “51% attack” impossible even with more than half of the network hash, and blocks whose Blockchain uses this second layer of security never run the risk of 51% attacks.
AYA has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by
first buying Bitcoin from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin.
1.1.1 ARYACOIN HISTORYAryacoin (AYA) is a new cryptocurrency, which has been created by a group of Iranian developers, is an altcoin which allows for decentralised, peer to peer transactions of electronic cash without any fees whatsoever. Along with the coin, there is a digital wallet that can be created and managed by the user entirely, with no control being retained by the Aryacoin team.
Aryacoin’s founder, Kiumars Parsa, has been a fan of alternative currencies and particularly Bitcoin.
“We see people from all around the world using Blockchain technology and the great benefits that came with it and it then that I decided to solve this puzzle for find a way of bringing the last missing piece to the jigsaw. The idea for Aryacoin was born.” Parsa said.
Parsa and his team of Iranian ex-pats not only persevered but expedited the project and just a year later, in the summer of 2019, the first version of Aryacoin was released. In 2020, Aryacoin is the first and only Iranian coin listed on CMC.
Parsa goes on to state that it is now the strength of the community that has invested in the coin that will ultimately drive its success, alongside its robust technology and appealing 0% network fees.
“We have thousands of voices behind Aryacoin. People for the people make this coin. It is a massive shout out for democracy. This had made us base the whole team strategy on the benefits for both our users and our traders.”
“One key example is that the network fee on AYA Blockchain is 0%. Yes, absolutely nothing, which which differentiates us from other networks. What also differentiates us from other coins is that we have AYAPAY which is the first cryptocurrency Gateway in the world which does not save funds on third party storage with all funds being forwarded directly to any wallet address that the Gateway owner requests”.
“So for the first time ever, and unlike other gateways, incoming funds will be saved on the users account with submitted withdrawal requests then made on the Gateway host website. In AYAPAY which has also been developed by the Aryacoin team, all funds without extra fees or extra costs will directly forwarded to users wallets. We have named this technology as CloudWithdrawal.”
“We are continuously challenging ourselves as it is a crowded marketplace. We are striving to have a safer Blockchain against 51% attacks, faster confirmations speeds of transactions, cheaper network fee, growing the market by cooperation with Top tier Exchangers.”
1.1.2 ARYACOIN’S MAIN GOALAryacoin’s main goal is to educate people and give them the freedom to use cryptocurrency in any way they want. Aryacoin empowers the users to transfer, pay, trade cryptocurrency from any country around the globe.
Platforms that have been created by Aryacoin Team, as well as those that will go live in future, operate on the same principle and exclude absolutely no one.
1.1.3 PROBLEM ARYACOIN SEEKS TO SOLVEAryacoin aims to provide a long-term solution to the problem of double spending, which is still common in the crypto market. The developers of the system have created a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp server that generates computational proof of the transactions as they occur.
Besides, the system remains secure provided honest nodes control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes. While Bitcoin was designed not to be regulated or controlled, many exchanges and governments have put regulatory measures on the pioneer cryptocurrency at every step. Aryacoin aims to overcome these restrictions as a free digital currency.
1.1.4 BENEFITS OF USING ARYACOINAryacoin solution offers the following benefits:
1.1.5 ARYACOIN FEATURES1. Anonymity
The coin provides decent level of anonymity for all its users. The users can send their transactions to any of the public nodes to be broadcasted , the transaction sent to the nodes should be signed by the private key of the sender address . This allows the users to use the coin anywhere any time , sending transactions directly to the node allows users from any place and country .
2. Real Life Usage
aryacoin’s team is continuously developing new and innovative ways to use the coins , they are currently developing exchanges where the users can exchange the coins without any fees and any restrictions . They also are currently developing other innovative technologies, which would allow users to spend our coins everywhere and anywhere.
3. Offline Exchanges
They are also working with different offline vendors which would enable them to buy and sell the coins directly to our users on a fixed/variable price this would allow easy buy/sell directly using cash . This would allow the coins to be accessible to users without any restrictions which most of the online exchanges have, also increase the value and number of users along with new ways to spend the coin. This would increase anonymity level of the
coin. In addition, introduce new users into the cryptomarket and technology. Creating a revolution, which educates people about crypto and introduce them to the crypto world, which introduces a completely new group of people into crypto and a move towards a Decentralized future!
When it comes to transactions, Aryacoin embraces a chain of digital signatures, where each owner simply transfers the coin to the next person by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner. The recipient can then verify the signatures to confirm the chain of ownership. Importantly, Aryacoin comes with a trusted central authority that checks every transaction for double spending.
5. Business Partner with Simplex
Aryacoin is the first and only Iranian digital currency that managed to obtain a trading license in other countries.
In collaboration with the foundation and financial giant Simplex, a major cryptocurrency company that has large companies such as Binance, P2P, Changelly, etc. Aryacoin has been licensed to enter the world’s major exchanges, as well as the possibility of purchasing AYA through Credit Cards, which will begin in the second half of 2020.
Also, the possibility of purchasing Aryacoin through Visa and MasterCard credit cards will be activated simultaneously inside the Aryacoin site. plus, in less than a year, AYA will be placed next to big names such as CoinCapMarket, Coinomi, P2P, Coinpayments and many other world-class brands today.
1.1.6 WHY CHOOSE ARYACOIN?If you want to use a cryptocurrency that allows you to keep your privacy online even when buying and selling the coins, the Aryacoin team claims that AYA is the way to go. Aryacoin is putting in the work: with more ways to buy and sell, and fixing the issues that were present in the original Bitcoin, plus pushing the boundaries with innovative solutions in cryptocurrencies. You can get started using Aryacoin (AYA) payments simply by having a CoinPayments account!
1.1.7 ARYANA CENTRALIZED EXCHANGEAryana, the first Iranian exchange is a unique platform with the following features:
The feature of Smart Trading Robots is one of the most powerful features for digital currency traders. Digital cryptocurrency traders are well aware of how much they will benefit from smart trading robots. In the Aryana exchange, it is possible to connect exchange user accounts to intelligent trading bots and trade even when they are offline.
The injection of $ 1 million a day in liquidity by the WhiteBite exchange to maintain and support the price of Tether and eliminate the Tether fluctuations with Bitcoin instabilities used by profiteers to become a matter of course.
1.1.8 HOW DOES ARYACOIN WORK?Aryacoin (AYA) tries to ensure a high level of security and privacy. The team has made sure to eliminate any trading restrictions for the network users: no verification is required to carry out transactions on AYA, making the project truly anonymous, decentralized, and giving it a real use in day-to-day life. The Delayed-Proof-of-Work (dPoW) algorithm makes the Aryacoin blockchain immune to any attempts of a 51% attack. AYA defines a coin as a chain of digital signatures — each owner transfers the coin to the next owner by digitally signing the hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner, and the receiver verifies the signatures and the chain of ownership.
2. ARYACOIN TECHNOLOGY
2.1 PROOF-OF-WORKThey use a proof-of-work system similar to Adam Back’s Hashcash to implement a distributed timestamp server on a peer-to-peer basis, rather than newspaper or Usenet publications. The proof-of-work involves scanning for a value that when hashed, such as with SHA-256, the hash begins with a number of zero bits. The average work required is exponential in the number of zero bits required and can be verified by executing a single hash.
For their timestamp network, they implement the proof-of-work by incrementing a nonce in the block until a value is found that gives the block’s hash the required zero bits. Once the CPU effort has been expended to make it satisfy the proof-of-work, the block cannot be changed without redoing the work. As later blocks are chained after it, the work to change the block would include redoing all the blocks after it.
The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision making. If the majority were based on one-IP-address-one-vote, it could be subverted by anyone able to allocate many IPs. Proof-of-work is essentially one-CPU-one-vote. The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it. If honest nodes control a majority of CPU power, the honest chain will grow the fastest and outpace any competing chains. To modify a past
block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of the block and all blocks after it, then catch up with, and surpass the work of the honest nodes.
2.2 NETWORKThe steps to run the network are as follows:
2.3 AYAPAY PAYMENT SERVICES GATEWAY:According to creators Aryacoin, the development team has succeeded in inventing a new blockchain technology for the first time in the world, which is undoubtedly a big step and great news for all digital currency enthusiasts around the world.
This new technology has been implemented on the Aryacoin AYAPAY platform and was unveiled on October 2. AYAPAY payment platform is the only payment gateway in the world that does not save money in users’ accounts and transfers incoming coins directly to any wallet address requested by the gateway owner without any additional transaction or fee.
In other similar systems or even systems such as PayPal, money is stored in the user account.
2.4 CONSENSUS ALGORITHM IN ARYACOINThe devs introduced the Delayed-Proof-of-Work (dPoW) algorithm, which represents a hybrid consensus method that allows one blockchain to take advantage of the security provided by the hashing power of another blockchain. The AYA blockchain works on dPoW and can use such consensus methods as Proof-of-Work (PoW) or Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and join to any desired PoW blockchain. The main purpose of this is to allow the blockchain to continue operating without notary nodes on the basis of its original consensus method. In this situation, additional security will no longer be provided through the attached blockchain, but this is not a particularly significant problem. dPoW can improve the security level and reduce energy consumption for any blockchain.
2.5 DOUBLE-SPEND PROBLEM AND SOLUTIONOne of the main problems in the blockchain world is that a receiver is unable to verify whether or not one of the senders did not double-spend. Aryacoin provides the solution, and has established a trusted central authority, or mint, that checks every transaction for double-spending. Only the mint can issue a new coin and all the coins issued directly from the mint are trusted and cannot be double-spent. However, such a system cannot therefore
be fully decentralized because it depends on the company running the mint, similar to a bank. Aryacoin implements a scheme where the receiver knows that the previous owners did not sign any earlier transactions. The mint is aware of all transactions including which of them arrived first. The developers used an interesting solution called the Timestamp Server, which works by taking a hash of a block of items to be ‘timestamped’ and publishing the hash. Each timestamp includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain. To modify a block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of all previous blocks, then catch up with, and surpass the work of the honest nodes. This is almost impossible, and makes the network processes more secure. The proof-of-work difficulty varies according to circumstances. Such an approach ensures reliability and high throughput.
3. ARYACOIN ROADMAPApril 2019: The launch of Aryacoin; AYA ICO, resulting in over 30BTC collected
December 2019: The launch of AYA Pay
April 2020: The successful Hamedan Hardfork, supported by all AYA exchanges, aimed at integrating the dPoW algorithm, improving the security of the AYA blockchain.
June 2020: Aryana Exchange goes live, opening more trading opportunities globally
July 2020: The enabling of our Coin Exchanger
November 2020: The implementation of Smart Contracts into the Aryacoin Ecosystem
Q1 2021: Alef B goes live (more details coming soon)
4. THE NUCYBER NETWORK COMMUNITY & SOCIALWebsite: https://aryacoin.io/
Twitter: 1.1k followers https://twitter.com/AryacoinAYA
Reddit: 442 members https://github.com/nucypher
Instagram: 3.8k followers https://www.instagram.com/mrdigicoin/ Telegram: 5.9k subscribers https://t.me/AYA_Global
5. SUMMARYAryacoin (AYA) is a new age cryptocurrency that combines the best of the blockchain technology and strives to deliver high trading and mining standards, enabling users to make peer-to-peer decentralized transactions of electronic cash. Aryacoin is part of an ecosystem that includes payment gateway Ayapay and the Ayabank. AYA has a partnership with the Microsoft Azure cloud platform, which provides the ability to develop applications and store data on servers located in distributed data centers. The network fee for the AYA Blockchain is 0%. In Ayapay service, which has been developed by the Aryacoin team, all funds without extra fees or costs are directly forwarded to users’ wallets with technology called CloudWithdrawal. The devs team is introducing new use cases including exchanges where users will exchange AYA without any restrictions. You can buy AYA on an exchange of your choice, create an Aryacoin wallet, and store it in Guarda.
6. REFERENCES1) https://coincodex.com/crypto/aryacoin/
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/iqxp2k1ntgf1eh0/AAADgaguZPmD11cxf1pTXIaJa?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): 1a0e13dd49cd1a43e3b1fe89ffa298b949c43d56f356cfc2d37f4feec0fa9567 Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/e14jnwgdksrccd4/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Duplicate Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/twvche11eigu4j3/DuplicateAuthentication.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/76zuh5xpfwfh8ps/MillionaireMakersDrawingCode.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/z3gwfvvtnk8fgn4/OfficialMM50IDs.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Bitcoin Block After 19 January 2019 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 82,393
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/jbv48uvdkwgc0uAAA5pHLtHdvksnsgZIdx8WS0a?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): edd3d0c462e37ec609c22879a6436427fbd32db8a99ad4e9e2d27382918e30ab Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/21vmoyvomyygmof/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/09krpkfvj84zqmi/MillionaireMakersDrawingCode.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/yq8yrla8kn3ye4y/OfficialMM48IDs.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Bitcoin Block After 17 November 2019 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 3,716
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/xcn9jsh93hnh2gi/AADqh7n62O3np1voZ8Hxfd7Ya?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): 1a4ae062f97f45093f0c682bd81bd2aaf4a484e524ea70e9e41dd500b0976684 Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/3c4zqqkigjfg5x8/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/7rvpdbz0i8fggbv/MillionaireMakersDrawingCode.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/fmt736tznklw3xm/OfficialMM47IDs.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Bitcoin Block After 20 September 2019 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 3,952
MacBook Pro (15-inch, 2019) Processor: 2.4 GHz 8-Core Intel Core i9 Memory: 32 GB 2400 MHz DDR4 Operating System: macOS Catalina version 10.15.3
|Dataset||File Size||Rows||Cols||M1||M2||Total Time|
|Denver Crime Data||111 MB||479,100||19||0.166s||0.768s||0.934s|
|AirBnb Paris Listings||196 MB||141,730||96||0.236s||0.512s||0.749s|
|2015 Flight Delays and Cancellations||574 MB||5,819,079||31||1.071s||9.316s||10.387s|
|StackLite: Stack Overflow questions||870 MB||17,203,824||7||2.459s||14.532s||16.991s|
|Used Cars Dataset||1.4 GB||539,768||25||1.597s||1.999s||3.596s|
|Title-Based Semantic Subject Indexing||3.7 GB||12,834,026||4||4.869s||10.133s||15.002s|
|Bitcoin tweets - 16M tweets||4 GB||47,478,748||9||7.431s||10.456s||17.887s|
|DDoS Balanced Dataset||6.3 GB||12,794,627||85||7.938s||42.951s||50.890s|
|Seattle Checkouts by Title||7.1 GB||34,892,623||11||11.118s||48.818s||59.937s|
|SHA-1 password hash dump||11 GB||2,62,974,240||2||32.370s||107.985s||140.356s|
|DOHUI NOH scaled_data||16 GB||504,779||3213||21.121s||59.328s||80.450s|
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/icghzj8o0z4k7uAAD5sQOJ8NyFmMr_UzWceVfda?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): d99628c0b610743fc5e2818ddc4f3058a34e5b72ba55593c8ee9cfbab5d2432a Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/btkq3h8oiy7gxgg/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/5ygpi5qo8an24m6/MillionaireMakersDrawingCode.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/f0bup769aupkwd7/OfficialMM45IDs.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Bitcoin Block After 18 August 2019 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 4,376
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/v0763t12631q3lp/AACafhWBkmWexKAWU4ZEiFrCa?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): 3d8aed7dad18d0c096b505c45eecc83b4a13e84c5b59d25037159f45df971214 Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/3tmnduko3loedsj/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/dh9j1b4htg38enz/MillionaireMakersDrawingCode.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/8rwz3a79ywilkdc/OfficialMM46IDs.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Bitcoin Block After 22 September 2019 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 5,304
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/r4ph4hz734xr6yAABbpDiKairx7GoOxnj6PvRSa?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): 9b8d8720467ff34fb99874944b8bb89bc87b57cdd4ee885a830c7f4356b2a7a4 Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/sh2p64i3c8z8jro/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/qa1ypti0dgt6sfg/MillionaireMakersDrawingCode.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/qyokmk8toi0eowg/OfficialMM44IDs.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Block After 21 July 2019 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 5,769
Dropbox Folder: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/ks527mzeklenmpq/AAAg0bpDkB1IO6csZkRXPlK5a?dl=0 SHA-256 (hash.online-convert.com): d032e375e1367b72fd707a0edea5eb0620db3a22335b13e7d151b08ff3200f62 Python PRAW Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/yhoymy36lsr6fdz/%28ALTERED%29%20MM%20Comment%20IDs%20Retrieval%20via%20PRAW.py?dl=0 Python Selection Code: https://www.dropbox.com/s/7yjzrnq74f253bh/MillionaireMakersDrawingCode.py?dl=0 Comment IDs' Text: https://www.dropbox.com/s/d2c8uc3tm1ou5b6/OfficialMM43IDs.txt?dl=0 Block Selection: The Third Block After 23 June 2019 - 16:00:00 UTC Total Participants: 3,567
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The consensus mechanism is one of the important elements of the blockchain and the core rule of the normal operation of the distributed ledger. It is mainly used to solve the trust problem between people and determine who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining the effective unification of the system in the blockchain system. Thus, it has become an everlasting research hot topic in blockchain.
This article starts with the concept and role of the consensus mechanism. First, it enables the reader to have a preliminary understanding of the consensus mechanism as a whole; then starting with the two armies and the Byzantine general problem, the evolution of the consensus mechanism is introduced in the order of the time when the consensus mechanism is proposed; Then, it briefly introduces the current mainstream consensus mechanism from three aspects of concept, working principle and representative project, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the mainstream consensus mechanism; finally, it gives suggestions on how to choose a consensus mechanism for blockchain projects and pointed out the possibility of the future development of the consensus mechanism.
First, concept and function of the consensus mechanism
1.1 Concept: The core rules for the normal operation of distributed ledgers
1.2 Role: Solve the trust problem and decide the generation and maintenance of new blocks
1.2.1 Used to solve the trust problem between people
1.2.2 Used to decide who is responsible for generating new blocks and maintaining effective unity in the blockchain system
1.3 Mainstream model of consensus algorithm
Second, the origin of the consensus mechanism
2.1 The two armies and the Byzantine generals
2.1.1 The two armies problem
2.1.2 The Byzantine generals problem
2.2 Development history of consensus mechanism
2.2.1 Classification of consensus mechanism
2.2.2 Development frontier of consensus mechanism
Third, Common Consensus System
Fourth, Selection of consensus mechanism and summary of current situation
4.1 How to choose a consensus mechanism that suits you
4.1.1 Determine whether the final result is important
4.1.2 Determine how fast the application process needs to be
4.1.2 Determining the degree to which the application requires for decentralization
4.1.3 Determine whether the system can be terminated
4.1.4 Select a suitable consensus algorithm after weighing the advantages and disadvantages
4.2 Future development of consensus mechanism
Last lecture review: Chapter 1 Concept and Function of Consensus Mechanism plus Chapter 2 Origin of Consensus Mechanism
Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 1)
Figure 6 Summary of relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms
Source: Hasib Anwar, "Consensus Algorithms: The Root Of The Blockchain Technology"
The picture above shows 14 relatively mainstream consensus mechanisms summarized by a geek Hasib Anwar, including PoW (Proof of Work), PoS (Proof of Stake), DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake), LPoS (Lease Proof of Stake), PoET ( Proof of Elapsed Time), PBFT (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance), SBFT (Simple Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DBFT (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance), DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph), Proof-of-Activity (Proof of Activity), Proof-of- Importance (Proof of Importance), Proof-of-Capacity (Proof of Capacity), Proof-of-Burn ( Proof of Burn), Proof-of-Weight (Proof of Weight).
Next, we will mainly introduce and analyze the top ten consensus mechanisms of the current blockchain.
Work proof mechanism. That is, the proof of work means that it takes a certain amount of computer time to confirm the work.
Figure 7 PoW work proof principle
The PoW represented by Bitcoin uses the SHA-256 algorithm function, which is a 256-bit hash algorithm in the password hash function family:
Proof of work output = SHA256 (SHA256 (block header));
if (output of proof of work
New difficulty value = old difficulty value* (time spent by last 2016 blocks /20160 minutes)
Target value = maximum target value / difficulty value
The maximum target value is a fixed number. If the last 2016 blocks took less than 20160 minutes, then this coefficient will be small, and the target value will be adjusted bigger, if not, the target value will be adjusted smaller. Bitcoin mining difficulty and block generation speed will be inversely proportional to the appropriate adjustment of block generation speed.
-Representative applications: BTC, etc.
Proof of stake. That is, a mechanism for reaching consensus based on the holding currency. The longer the currency is held, the greater the probability of getting a reward.
PoS implementation algorithm formula: hash(block_header) =
Among them, coinage means coin age, which means that the older the coin age, the easier it is to get answers. The calculation of the coin age is obtained by multiplying the coins owned by the miner by the remaining usage time of each coin, which also means that the more coins you have, the easier it is to get answers. In this way, pos solves the problem of wasting resources in pow, and miners cannot own 51% coins from the entire network, so it also solves the problem of 51% attacks.
-Representative applications: ETH, etc.
Delegated proof of stake. That is, currency holding investors select super nodes by voting to operate the entire network , similar to the people's congress system.
The DPOS algorithm is divided into two parts. Elect a group of block producers and schedule production.
Election: Only permanent nodes with the right to be elected can be elected, and ultimately only the top N witnesses can be elected. These N individuals must obtain more than 50% of the votes to be successfully elected. In addition, this list will be re-elected at regular intervals.
Scheduled production: Under normal circumstances, block producers take turns to generate a block every 3 seconds. Assuming that no producer misses his order, then the chain they produce is bound to be the longest chain. When a witness produces a block, a block needs to be generated every 2s. If the specified time is exceeded, the current witness will lose the right to produce and the right will be transferred to the next witness. Then the witness is not only unpaid, but also may lose his identity.
-Representative applications: EOS, etc.
Delayed proof of work. A new-generation consensus mechanism based on PoB and DPoS. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. This can achieve a balance between computing power and mining rights.
In the DPoW-based blockchain, miners are no longer rewarded tokens, but "wood" that can be burned, burning wood. Miners use their own computing power, through the hash algorithm, and finally prove their work, get the corresponding wood, wood is not tradable. After the wood has accumulated to a certain amount, you can go to the burning site to burn the wood. Through a set of algorithms, people who burn more wood or BP or a group of BP can obtain the right to generate blocks in the next event segment, and get rewards (tokens) after successful block generation. Since more than one person may burn wood in a time period, the probability of producing blocks in the next time period is determined by the amount of wood burned by oneself. The more it is burned, the higher the probability of obtaining block rights in the next period.
Two node types: notary node and normal node.
The 64 notary nodes are elected by the stakeholders of the dPoW blockchain, and the notarized confirmed blocks can be added from the dPoW blockchain to the attached PoW blockchain. Once a block is added, the hash value of the block will be added to the Bitcoin transaction signed by 33 notary nodes, and a hash will be created to the dPow block record of the Bitcoin blockchain. This record has been notarized by most notary nodes in the network. In order to avoid wars on mining between notary nodes, and thereby reduce the efficiency of the network, Komodo designed a mining method that uses a polling mechanism. This method has two operating modes. In the "No Notary" (No Notary) mode, all network nodes can participate in mining, which is similar to the traditional PoW consensus mechanism. In the "Notaries Active" mode, network notaries use a significantly reduced network difficulty rate to mine. In the "Notary Public Activation" mode, each notary public is allowed to mine a block with its current difficulty, while other notary public nodes must use 10 times the difficulty of mining, and all normal nodes use 100 times the difficulty of the notary public node.
Figure 8 DPoW operation process without a notary node
-Representative applications: CelesOS, Komodo, etc.
CelesOS Research Institute丨DPoW consensus mechanism-combustible mining and voting
Practical Byzantine fault tolerance algorithm. That is, the complexity of the algorithm is reduced from exponential to polynomial level, making the Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm feasible in practical system applications.
Figure 9 PBFT algorithm principle
First, the client sends a request to the master node to call the service operation, and then the master node broadcasts other copies of the request. All copies execute the request and send the result back to the client. The client needs to wait for f+1 different replica nodes to return the same result as the final result of the entire operation.
Two qualifications: 1. All nodes must be deterministic. That is to say, the results of the operation must be the same under the same conditions and parameters. 2. All nodes must start from the same status. Under these two limited qualifications, even if there are failed replica nodes, the PBFT algorithm agrees on the total order of execution of all non-failed replica nodes, thereby ensuring security.
-Representative applications: Tendermint Consensus, etc.
Next Lecture: Chapter 3 Common Consensus Mechanisms (Part 2) + Chapter 4 Consensus Mechanism Selection and Status Summary
As the first DPOW financial blockchain operating system, CelesOS adopts consensus mechanism 3.0 to break through the "impossible triangle", which can provide high TPS while also allowing for decentralization. Committed to creating a financial blockchain operating system that embraces supervision, providing services for financial institutions and the development of applications on the supervision chain, and formulating a role and consensus ecological supervision layer agreement for supervision.
The CelesOS team is dedicated to building a bridge between blockchain and regulatory agencies/financial industry. We believe that only blockchain technology that cooperates with regulators will have a real future. We believe in and contribute to achieving this goal.
The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) is one of a number of cryptographic hash functions. A cryptographic hash is like a signature for a data set. If you would like to compare two sets of raw data (source of the file, text or similar) it is always better to hash it and compare SHA256 values. It is like the fingerprints of the data. Even if only one symbol is changed the algorithm will produce ... All Hash Generator web developer and programmer tools. World's simplest hash calculator. Just paste your text in the form below, press Calculate Hashes button, and you get dozens of hashes. Press button, get hashes. No ads, nonsense or garbage. Announcement: We just added another two new tools categories – PNG Tools and UTF8 Tools. Check them out! NTLM. MD2. MD4. MD5. MD6-128. MD6-256. MD6 ... This algorithm generates a 160-bit hash based on the same principles as MD4 and MD5 hash functions. SHA-1 was used in security applications, protocols and in distributed revision control systems. The purpose of use was to identify revisions and to detect data corruption. In 2005 security weakness were deteced in this algorithm. So the stronger algorithm was released – SHA2 SHA-256 hash ... What is the SHA1 generator? SHA1 is an algorithm similar to MD5. The difference between these two are: SHA1 produces a hash of 40 chars length; The hash function is rounded for 80 times. MD5 chain is repeated for only 64 times; This algorithm was built by the National Security Agency, in 1995, three years after MD5 was published. Beispiele für Hash Funktionen wären zum Beispiel der bereits genannte SHA-256, der auch von Bitcoin verwendet wird. SHA-256 gehört zu der Gruppe von SHA-2 Algorithmen, entwickelt vom National Institute of Standards and Technology. SHA-256d wird von der Peercoin und Namecoin verwendet. Häufiger kommt auch der Algorithmus Scrypt zum Einsatz (Litecoin, Dogecoin, Gridcoin). Equihash (Zcash ...
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